Bird Families

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) Bird Profile

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American kestrel, scientific name Falco sparverius is the smallest and most common falcon in North America. It has about two to one dimension in size compared to subspecies and genders, different from the size of a mourning dove in the weight of a blue inventory.

The American kestrel is also found in South America and is a well-established species that has evolved seventeen subspecies to adapt to different environments and habitats throughout the United States.

The American kestrel shows sexual intimacy in size (females are moderately larger) and plumage, though both sexes are at the back of the penis with a noticeable feather that is noticeable and attractive and similar for adolescents.

The American kestrel usually scans the ground for prey in the sky, and in a power-saving fashion, it also prey on the air. It sometimes rotates in the air with quick wings beats as it enters the hunt. Its diet usually includes grasshoppers and other insects, ticks, rats and small birds (eg, sparrows).

This extensive diet has contributed to its widespread success as a species. The American kestrel nests in trees, cliffs, buildings and other structures. The female lays three to seven eggs which help to burn both sexes.

Its reproductive range extends from northern Canada to central and western Alaska to Nova Scotia and throughout South America to southern Mexico and the Caribbean. The American kestrel is a native breeder of Central America and is widely distributed throughout South America.

In Canada and North America, most birds in the United States travel south in the winter. This is the occasional intimacy of Western Europe.

Based on appearance and behavior, it was considered a member of the European and African kestrel clad for many years in the Falco species, but DNA analysis revealed that American kestrel is actually genetically related to the larger American Falcon, such as the Aplomado, the Peregrine and the Prairie Falcons.

Although the name of the species has not been changed as a result of this genetic analysis, it is not really an ophthalmologist in the phylogenetic sense.

Instead, the process of evolutionary evolution, such as true kestrels, left it in the same physical traits and prey patterns to fit a small prey species similar to the ecosystem.

The American kestrel is a common bird, especially used by newcomers to Falconry. Although not as powerful as many other, larger Falcons, Falconer's precision training and weight control make many American Kestrels occasionally successful against birds with almost twice the success of their own, occasionally gaining their own weight against the birds.

Description

Under the traditional classification, American Kestrel is the smallest originator in America. The American kestrel is sexier, though there is some overlap in the plumage color between the sexes. The length of the bird is from 22 to 31 centimeters (8.7 to 12.2 inches), to the right of 51-161 cm (20-24 inches).

The female American kestrel is larger than males, less than large falcons, but usually grow to about 10% to 15% of a tribe, with more northern subspecies leaning toward larger size, with a larger northern female doubling the size of the smaller southern males with males generally weighing 1-300. Grams (2.5-1.5 oz) and female 65 grams (3.0-5.8 oz). In standard measurements, the wingspan is 16-25 cm (6.3-8.3 in) long, the tail 11-15 cm (4.3 4.5.9 in) and the tarsus 3.2-4 cm (1.3-11.6 in).

Physically, American kestrels are slower and muscular compared to larger Falcons. The pectoral flight muscles of American kestrel comprise about 12% of its body weight, compared with about 20% of powerful flying falcons, such as Peregrine.

The wings are moderately long, quite slender and tapered to a point. Their less muscular body type is matched with aggressive energy-consuming prey, spending a lot of energy on the wing and not having to chase the bird's long tail.

For their size, they have strong talons and beaches and can dispatch prey quickly. Their slim build and energy conservation strategies allow them to consume less daily food than they are more strongly muscular, yet have enough power to make bird prey generally larger and sometimes larger, with the success of this body style and hunting technique throughout the United States.

A large range is frequently reflected in the high success of the species. The flight to American kestrel is not so much more dramatic and faster than the more muscular Falcon, such as the Massalins and Peregrines, but they require efficient adaptation and less food per day, with a wider diet of smaller prey, resulting in more of them being present.

Unlike many other upland species, the sexes differ more in plumage than size. Men's blue-gray winged black spots and white underside with black bearings.

The back is awkward with failure with the lower half. The abdomen and flanks are white with blotches. The tail is also stiff with white or rough tips and a black subterminal band. The back and wings of the female American kestrel are weird with dark brown color bearings. The underside of the women is cream to buff with heavy brown striking.

The tail is noticeably different from the male, becoming colored with numerous narrow dark black bars. Adolescents display colorful patterns as adults. The head is white with a blue-gray top on both sexes.

On each side of the head are two thin, vertical blackface marks, while the other Falcon has one white or orange nape on each side with two black spots (ocelli). The effectiveness of these spots is controversial, but the most widely accepted theory is that they act as “false eyes” and help protect the bird from potential attackers.

Vocalizations

American kestrel has three basic vocals - “Clue” or “Kylie”, “Whin” and “Cheater”. “Clie” is usually delivered as a series of fast - cli, cli, cli, cli when canstrelle is disturbed or excited. This call is used in a variety of situations and can be heard from both sexes, but older women usually have lower levels of voice than men.

The “whine” call is primarily related to feeding, but it is also pronounced during intercourse. “Cheater” is used in activities that involve interaction between male and female birds, including court feeding, cohabitation, and nesting. Nestlings can produce calls as old as 16 days old.

Ecology and behavior

American kestrels are found in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, ferries, deserts, and other openings in the Semopen region.

They are also found in both cities and suburbs. A kestler's residence must include parks, open space for hunting, and a cave (natural or man-made) for nesting. From the American kestrel Arctic Circle to the tropics of Central America, the Andes range from 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) in height to the ability to live in very diverse conditions.

The bird is distributed from northern Canada and Alaska to the southern tip of South America, Tierra del Fuego. This is the only ophthalmic cell in the United States, although this taxonomy is not genetically correct. It has been reported as unclear in the UK, Denmark, Malta and the Azores.

The American kestrel of Canada and North America usually moves south in the winter, sometimes to Central America and the Caribbean. Birds that breed about 35 ° north latitude are generally year-round residents.

Transfer also depends on local weather conditions. The choice of accommodation for winter kestrels varies by sex.

During the non-breeding season, females are more often found in open space than males. A common explanation for this behavior is that older women first arrive at the desired accommodation and exclude men from their territory.

The American kestrel is not long-lasting, with a <5 year lifetime for wild birds. The oldest banded wild bird was 11 years 7 months, while captive kestrels could survive up to 14-17 years.

According to a survey, 43.2% of the 1,355 people died, including direct kill and roadkill, while predation (including large birds of prey) was 2.5%.

These figures are probably biased, though it has been reported that the death toll is generally found by people in populated areas or nearby areas.

Upbringing

American kestrels feed on large numbers of small animals such as fowl, dragonflies, ticks, rats, bases, and small birds. It has also been reported that snakes, bats, and squirrels have died in the castle.

The American kestrel is able to maintain high population density, at least in part, due to the wide scope of his diet. The primary method of hunting American Kestrel is to nail and wait for the victim to come close.

The park can be seen characteristically on the side of the road or on the side of the field in things like trees, overhead power lines or fence posts.

It shoots, swings in the air with quick wings beats and scans the ground for hunting. Other hunting strategies include flying low on the ground or chasing insects and birds in the air.

Hunters are often caught on the ground, though sometimes they fly birds. Before the strike, American kestrel characteristically bobs his head and tail, then flies directly to the victim to catch it high.

Much like the red-legged thunderbolt, American kestrels save energy on a prey and carefully choose their attacks on the success and adversity of success. During the breeding season, the bird will carry large prey back to its mate or young person.

One study found that an American kestrel pair “boils down” in a way that reduces the cost of gaining strength in certain situations. For example, if the success rate of hunting in a particular area is significantly reduced, the bird will move to another area.

Reproduction

American kestrels mature by sex in their first spring. In migratory populations, males reach breeding sites before wives, after which females select a mate. Pair bonds are often permanent Permanent joints usually use nesting sites in later years.

This gives the birds an advantage over those who are under-age or invading as they will already be familiar with the hunting field, neighbors, predators and other features of the site.

Men display a wide variety of dive displays to advertise their territory and attract mates.

These displays consist of a few climbs and dives, with three or four “cli” at their peak. The women stand for about one to two weeks before they reach the nest.

It is thought to stimulate ovulation. The transfer of food from male to female is about one to two weeks after laying eggs for about four to five weeks.

American kestrels are cavity-nesting, but they are able to adapt to a variety of nesting conditions. They generally prefer natural cavities (such as in the tree) with closed tops and tight-fitting entrances that provide the most protection for eggs and toddlers.

American kestrel sometimes nests in holes made by large woodpeckers or use abandoned nests of other birds, such as red-clad thunderbolts, marlins, and crow. They are listed as cliff lodges and building tops, as well as cactus nesting in abandoned caves. American kestrels usually use nest boxes as well.

Three to seven eggs (usually four or five) are kept separate for about 24-22 hours. The average egg size is 32 mm × 29 mm (1.3 in × 1.1 in), 10% larger than its body size bird.

Eggs range from white to cream with either brown or gray splotching. Incubation usually lasts 30 days and is mainly the responsibility of the female, though males spend 15-220% of the time of eggs that are lost are usually replaced by 11-12 days.

Hatching takes three to four days. The hatchlings are distinct and sit up to only five days later and they grow very fast, reaching the weight of adults after 16-17 days. After 20-6 days, their wings develop and they are able to leave the nest.

Young adult kestrels can breed from one year of age, and the species lasts about three to five years in the wild.

In the words of ecology, the reproduction pattern of the American kestrel is leaning toward the “r selection” strategy of a small bird. In the R / K selection theory, selective pressures are assumed to drive evolution in one of two general directions: R or K selection.

R-selected species are those that emphasize higher growth rates, generally absorb less-crowded ecological niches and produce many offspring, each of which has a relatively low probability of survival (e.g., high R, low K).

In contrast, K-selected species exhibit habitat-related traits in the density of caries and are generally strong competitors in the breeding niche, who invest more in the lower breed, each of whom has a relatively higher probability of survival (e.g., lower r, higher k).

Among these two extremes, American kestrel is one of the few rapper species that is prone to be re-selected.

They are able to breed at one year of age, have low numbers of non-breeding adults in the population, and have large broods.

Their population growth rate is higher than that of the larger rappers, who are generally inclined to be K-selected.

Watch the video: South Texas bird of prey Sparrow Hawk American Kestrel Falco sparverius (June 2021).

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