Bird Families

School atlas-guide to birds

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Migrant. Nesting area: Shrub tundra and deep taiga bogs.

Habits: It stays on the ground, sometimes sits on trees and bushes. While singing, it rises into the air. It is kept alone and in pairs.

Egg laying time: June - July. Egg color and size: Greenish with dark spots.

Nest location and description: On the ground. The main material is thin cereal stalks.

Field horse

293. Field Horse - Anthus campestris.

The size of a sparrow. Very similar to the steppe pipit. The dorsal side is sandy-gray, the ventral side is whitish-buffy. Migrant. Inhabits fields, pastures, dry steppes, forest glades from the western borders of the USSR to the Yenisei. The nest and clutch are the same as those of the steppe pipit. The voice is a short song and the call call "twi" or "ciruy". It differs from the steppe ridge in a more gray coloration of the back.

Forest horse

294. Forest Horse - Anthus trivialis.

Slightly smaller than a sparrow. The back is olive-brown with clear dark streaks, the ventral side is whitish with an ocher bloom on the chest. The chest is large, the sides with narrow dark streaks. Migrant. Inhabits forest glades, forest edges, meadows with shrubs from the western borders of the USSR to the upper reaches of the Kolyma. The nest and clutch are like those of the steppe pipit. Voice - short "cit-cit" and monotonous song.

In the field, it is best distinguished from other skates by its characteristic song.

Meadow horse

295. Meadow Horse - Anthus pratensis.

The size of a sparrow. Very similar to the forest pipit, but the hind toe claw is long, slightly curved. Migrant. Inhabits tundra, forest-tundra and damp meadows in the forest zone from the western borders to the Ob. The nest and clutch are like those of the steppe pipit. The voice is a short pit and a monotonous song.

In the field, it is very difficult to determine by appearance. The easiest way to recognize the meadow pipit is its characteristic song.

Red-throated horse

297. Red-throated Pipit - Anthus cervina.

Slightly smaller than a sparrow. Very similar to the forest pipit, but the throat, goiter and chest are rusty-reddish.

Migrant. Inhabits the tundra and forest-tundra zone from the Kola Peninsula to Chukotka. The nest and clutch are like those of the steppe pipit. The voice is a quiet "psyurris" and a ringing song.

It differs from other skates in a rusty-red coloration of the ventral side of the body.

Mountain horse

298. Mountain Horse - Anthus spinoletta.

The size of a sparrow. The dorsal side is gray, the ventral side is light buffy-sandy, on the goiter and chest with a pinkish tinge. Migrant. Inhabits meadows in the subalpine and alpine mountain belts. The nest and clutch are like those of the steppe pipit. The voice is a quiet "cit-cit" and a quiet song. Difficult to define in nature. It differs from other skates by the almost complete absence of streaks in color.

Meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis)

Appearance: Very similar to the forest pipit, but the hind toe claw is long, slightly curved.
The size: Body length = 15-16cm, weight = 16-18g. Less sparrow.

Features: The meadow pipit differs from the forest pipit and the spotted pipit by the long claw of the hind toe, and from the Siberian pipit by the lighter olive-gray upper body.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. Sings in the air. It keeps in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects, spiders. It feeds on the ground.
Feature article
Breeding area: Damp meadows, grassy and mossy bogs, mossy and stony tundra.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground.
Egg laying time: April - July
Eggs color and size: Grayish, yellowish or greenish with brown spots, 2x1.5 cm.

Field pipit (Anthus campestris)

Appearance: It is very similar to the steppe pipit, but slightly smaller, grayer and the underparts are buffy-whitish with a brownish tinge on the sternum, the sides, sometimes brown longitudinal streaks are visible on the chest, white stripes on the sides of the tail.
The size: Body length = 17-19cm, weight = 22-24g. C sparrow.

Features: The field pipit differs from the steppe pipit by a more gray coloration of the top and a smaller size.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. Sings on the ground and sitting on the upper branches of the bushes. It keeps alone, in pairs, and on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects, sometimes small snails and worms.
Feature article
Breeding area: Dry steppe spaces on the plains and in the mountains, where it usually occupies humid places, sometimes forest glades and forest edges.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in a hole. Loose, from stems, roots, grass, moss.
Egg laying time: May - July
Eggs color and size: Whitish, greenish or reddish with dark spots, 2x1.5 cm.

Steppe pipit (Anthus richardi)

Appearance: The upper part of the body is reddish-brown with dark streaks, the underside of the body and stripes on the sides of the tail are white, on the crop and chest there is an intense buffy bloom and rare brown streaks, the "eyebrow" is whitish.
The size: Body length = 19-20cm, weight = 24-30g. C sparrow.

Features: The steppe pipit differs from other skates by its large size.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. Sings flying in circles in the air. It keeps alone, in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects.
Breeding area: Open steppe and meadow spaces.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in a hole.
Egg laying time: May June
Eggs color and size: Olive chocolate, 2x1.5 cm.

Siberian Pipit (Anthus gustavi)

Appearance: Similar to the forest pipit, but the overall tone of the upper body is black-brownish with an admixture of whitish streaks. The claw of the hind toe is long, slightly curved.
The size: From a sparrow.

Features: The Siberian pipit differs from the meadow pipit in the darker color of the upper body with whitish streaks.

Habits: It keeps on the ground, sometimes sits on trees and bushes. While singing, it rises into the air. It is kept alone and in pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Shrub tundra and deep taiga bogs.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground. The main material is thin cereal stalks.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Greenish with dark spots.

Red-throated pipit (Anthus cervina)

Appearance: The coloration of the upper body is the same as that of the forest pipit. In the male, the “eyebrow”, sides of the head, throat, goiter and chest are rusty-reddish. Females and juveniles are similar to forest and meadow pipits, but they also have a reddish tint on the throat, goiter and chest.
The size: Body length = 16-18cm, weight = 18-22g. Less sparrow.

Features: The red-throated pipit in spring differs from other skates in reddish tones in the coloration of the underside of the body.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. It keeps in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects.
Breeding area: Humpy, humid tundra.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in a hole.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Bluish or olive gray with dark spots, 2x1.5 cm.

Mountain pipit (Anthus spinoletta)

Appearance: The top of the head and upper tail are gray, the back is brown-gray, the wings and tail are brown, the belly and stripes on the sides of the tail are white, the throat, goiter and chest are buffy-pinkish, sometimes sharp brownish streaks on the head and chest.
The size: Weight = 20-25g. C sparrow.

Features: The mountain pipit differs from other skates by an almost complete absence of streaks in color and a pinkish underside of the body.

Habits: Sings on the ground and in the air. It keeps in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects.
Feature article
Breeding area: Subalpine and alpine meadows, mountain tundra.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground.
Egg laying time: April - July
Eggs color and size: Grayish or greenish with blackish specks, 2x1.5 cm.

Spotted pipit (Anthus hodgsoni)

Appearance: It looks like a forest pipit, but on the upper side it has a shade of greenish-olive.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: In the field, it is practically indistinguishable from forest, meadow and Siberian pipits.Close to meadow and Siberian it differs in a short claw of the hind toe, from forest toe in a brighter greenish color of the upper side of the body.

Habits: Sings in the same way as the forest horse. It feeds on the ground.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

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