Bird Families

Swordsman of Montezuma

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  • Cyrtonyx montezumae montezumae: E Mexico (Tamaulipas to Hidalgo, Puebla and Oaxaca)
  • Cyrtonyx montezumae merriami: SE Mexico (Mt. Orizaba area of ​​Veracruz)
  • Cyrtonyx montezumae mearnsi: W Texas to central Arizona and n Mexico (n Coahuila)
  • Cyrtonyx montezumae sallei: S Mexico (s Michoacán to Guerrero and w Oaxaca)
  • Cyrtonyx montezumae rowleyi: S Mexico (Sierra de Miahuatlán of Guerrero and Oaxaca)
  • Show more.

Classification

Class: Ray-finned fish (Latin Actinopterygii)
Order: Carp-toothed (Cyprinodontiformes, mosquitoids and viviparous)
Family: Peciliaceae (Latin Poeciliidae)
Subfamily: Pecilinaceae (Poeciliinae)

Characteristics of the environment for the Montezuma swordsman: temperature 20-26 ° C, pH 7.0-8.0, water hardness range: 10-20,

Growth and development

Swordtails reach sexual maturity at the age of 164 ± 52 days. In males, this period is accompanied by a modification of the gonopodia and the beginning of the elongation of the sword. During this period, the standard length of the male already reaches 40-43.5 mm. The standard length of females is slightly more than 65 cm.

In aquarium conditions, males reach a maximum length of 51 mm and have a sword that is 64 mm long. Individuals caught in nature have a similar size of 50.5 ± 8.6 mm, but possess significantly shorter swords of 54.9 ± 18.6 mm. Thus, in laboratory conditions, the sword reaches a greater length than in natural conditions. The relatively shorter swords of wild-caught males suggest that those caught are predominantly younger fish than those raised in the laboratory.

Growth model by Von Bertalanffy. Male body growth of X. montezumae (standard length) with a solid line, tail growth indicated by a dashed line

The sword continues to grow with age, which is accompanied for the individual by increasing energy costs for movement in the water and, possibly, a higher risk of being caught by a predator. Thus, the increase in the sword throughout life plays an important role in the survival of males, making it difficult for individuals with long swords to live in the wild.


Reproduction of the swordsman Montezuma

The Mexican swordtail is a viviparous fish. Every 4-5 weeks, females reproduce offspring in the amount of 15-30 individuals. The fry immediately hide in a thicket of algae. One fertilization can give birth to several broods of fry. To increase the survival rate among fry, it is recommended to isolate the female before the offspring are born.

Competition is widespread among males, so they spend most of their energy on fighting and chasing each other. They may be shy at first, but once they get used to their habitat, they will no longer be afraid of you. The wild nature of this fish is manifested in its shyness, it moves quickly, which is why it is caught with a pipe in a net. Reproduction is better if 2-3 females and 1 male live in one 80-liter aquarium. If you supply the aquarium with Javanese moss or other floating plants, adults can hide there during the birth of their offspring to feel safe. As a rule, females do not try to eat the newborn offspring, but raising the fry separately will help avoid competition for food between the young generation and the adults.

They get along well with each other, and, despite their mobile lifestyle, they almost never damage their fins.

Arrangement of the aquarium

The Mexican swordtail (Latin Xiphophorus montezumae) should be kept in an aquarium with lots of plants. The aquarium should have both open swimming areas and areas of dense vegetation where fish can find refuge and females can reproduce offspring. The number of females must exceed the number of males.

See also other dictionaries:

crying quail of Montezuma - Montesumos verkiančioji putpelė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cyrtonyx montezumae angl. Montezuma quail vok. Montezumawachtel, f rus. crying quail of Montezuma, m pranc. colin arlequin, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Toothed partridge - Toothed partridges ... Wikipedia

Cyrtonyx montezumae - Montesumos verkiančioji putpelė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cyrtonyx montezumae angl. Montezuma quail vok. Montezumawachtel, f rus. crying quail of Montezuma, m pranc. colin arlequin, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Montesumos verkiančioji putpelė - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cyrtonyx montezumae angl. Montezuma quail vok. Montezumawachtel, f rus. crying quail of Montezuma, m pranc. colin arlequin, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - verkiančios putpelės… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Montezuma quail - Montesumos verkiančioji putpelė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cyrtonyx montezumae angl. Montezuma quail vok. Montezumawachtel, f rus. crying quail of Montezuma, m pranc. colin arlequin, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Montezumawachtel - Montesumos verkiančioji putpelė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cyrtonyx montezumae angl. Montezuma quail vok. Montezumawachtel, f rus. crying quail of Montezuma, m pranc. colin arlequin, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

colin arlequin - Montesumos verkiančioji putpelė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cyrtonyx montezumae angl. Montezuma quail vok. Montezumawachtel, f rus. crying quail of Montezuma, m pranc. colin arlequin, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Wikiwand

Quail of Montezuma(Cyrtonyx montezumae) is the short, secretive New World quail of Mexico and some of the neighboring parts of the United States. It is also known as Mearns' quail, jester quail (for a striking sample of a man) and stupid quail (for his behavior).

Description

At approximately 22 cm (8.75 in), it is one of the shortest quails in North America, although it weighs 180 g (6 oz), the same as some quails Callipeplawhich are several centimeters longer. It has an even plumper build and shorter tail than other quails.

of both sexes have tan back and wing shelters with buff-shaped longitudinal stripes shaped by feather shafts and circular or crosswise oblong black spots arranged in bars. The ridge at the back of the head makes the profile distinctly long chest-back. The beak is black above and bluish gray below. Adult males have a striking, swirling black and white facial pattern. A single brown feather lies flat on the ridge. Their sides are blue-gray (often looking black) with bold spots, which in northern birds are white, and in southern birds white to the front and chestnut to the back. The middle of the chest and abdomen is dark brown in northern birds, lighter and more yellowish brown in southern birds. Women have a proposal for a sample of a man's face. Their underparts are light brown with a few fine black shaft stripes and other lines. The teens resemble women, but the underparts are greyish with white shaft stripes and black dots. Immature males develop an adult face pattern early, but do not develop a face pattern until the beginning of winter.

An unusual feature of this species is the long, sickle-shaped claws that it uses for digging.

Vote

Assembly or territorial claim - "six to nine notes descending in the pitch", "distant carry, descending, quivering whinny." "Song" of a man for connection - "eerie, melancholy, bright, going down the whistle vwirrrrr"Or" insect-like buzz that starts at high feed and descends. " It is given from the ground, whereas other quails sing at such heights as the tops of fenceposts or bushes. There are other requirements as well.

Taxonomy

The southern population is sometimes considered a separate species, Cyrtonyx sallei... On the other hand, Montezuma quails are sometimes considered conspecific with a very similar ocellated quail. Cyrtonyx ocellatuswhich replaces it from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to northern Nicaragua.

Subspecies

There are five recognized subspecies:

  • C. m. mearnsi (Nelson, 1900) - Mearns' quail - western Texas to central Arizona and northern Coahuila
  • C. m. merriami (Nelson, 1897) - Montezuma Merriham's quail - southeastern Mexico
  • C. m. montezumae (Energy, 1830) - nominated - eastern Mexico
  • C. m. rowleyi (AR Phillips, 1966) - Sierra de Miahuatlán in southern Mexico
  • C. m. sallei (Verreaux, 1859) - Hall quail - Sierra de Michoacán in southern Mexico

Range and habitat

This species is found (or omitted) from the north of Oaxaca through the interior of Mexico to the mountains of central and southeastern Arizona, central and southwestern New Mexico, and western Texas. It is absent in the deserts and the Balsas Río valley. There are five subspecies, divided into two types of plumage, northern and southern, that intermediate form in central Veracruz.

Habitat - open forests, most often oak, but also pine oak and juniper, with grass at least 30 cm high (1 ft). The slopes of hills and canyons are especially favored. The range decreases and becomes fragmented.

Behavior

In the fall, Montezuma quails do not form large groups, as most American quails do.The average brood consists of eight birds, just parents and their offspring and broods, more than 25 birds reported. At night, birds in brood roost on southeast facing slopes gathered around a rock or bump, standing outward.

These birds are quite sedentary. A pair or brood usually fodder within 50 m of the place where it got food the day before. Brood areas in the fall and winter are only 1 - 5 hectares, during the breeding season, pairs are spread, and the territory can be as much as 50 hectares. Otherwise, no seasonal movements are known.

In the presence of people, Montezuma's quail tilt, motionless in the tall grass instead of running. They can allow an approach as close as 1 meter before flying (taking off with “loud, flapping wing noise & # 187) and, on rare occasions, has been caught by hand.

Feeding

Montezuma's quail eats insects, especially in summer, as well as plants. Especially important plant-based food - Oxalis and other bulbs, as well as sedge (Cyperus esculentus and C. sphaerolepis) the tubers that it digs up. The holes, often in the roots of shrubs and rocks, can be as much as 8 cm deep and are a good indication of the presence of a bird. Crops sometimes contain light bulbs of plants that do not have ground growth that season, as birds find such bulbs unknown.

Reproduction

Males start singing in February or March, but nesting doesn't start until July or August, the "monsoon" rainy season throughout its range. A long delay between mating and nesting is unusual for quails. The nest is also unusual: a dome of grass with one entrance, more elaborate than most nests in the family. The clutch comprises approximately 11 eggs (ranging from 6 to 12) that are "whitish" or "chalk white". Incubation lasts about 25 days by both male and female (two days longer than that of most American quails). Males help youngsters think, at least in captive birds, they can also help build nests and hatch eggs.

Interactions with people

Like most of the birds of his order, Montezuma's quail is a popular game bird. Regulated hunting does not appear to affect the population much in the United States, but it may have a greater effect in Mexico. The big threat seems to be cattle grazing, not because of the competition for food, but because it depletes the cover that the quail is hiding in. Grazing is especially harmful in years of low summer rains. However, some grazing regimes may not harm quail populations.

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