Bird Families

Astrild mountain Ethiopian - Cryptospiza salvadorii, species

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Ethiopian mountain astrild (lat. Cryptospiza salvadorii ) Is a bird from the family of finch weavers.

1. Description

The Ethiopian mountain astrild reaches a length of 12 cm. The head of the male is greenish-olive, the back and tail are dark carmine. The chin and throat are lighter in color than the rest of the lower body, their coloration can vary depending on the subspecies from straw yellow to pale olive. Covering wings have a partly red border, the inner part of the wings has wide outer edges of a carmine color. There are also carmine spots on the sides of the body. Plumage shades are highly variable and can be more brownish, more greenish or more gray. The eyes are dark brown with a red edge of the eyelid, the beak is black.

Females are similar to males, but the color of their plumage is somewhat duller, and the number of red spots on the sides of the body is less.

2. Dissemination

The Ethiopian mountain astrild lives in the mountains of East Africa. The distribution area extends from the south of Sudan and Ethiopia to the mountainous regions in the northwest of Lake Tanganyika and the north of Tanzania. It inhabits both the inner part and the periphery of a dense mountain forest and is also found in thickets along the banks of streams and rivers. Birds live up to 3000 m above sea level.

3. Nutrition

The Ethiopian Mountain Astrilda feeds on small seeds, preferring bristle seeds. Along with this, it also feeds on balsam seeds (Impatiens). A nest of grass and fibers is located 2 to 4 m above the ground. In clutch there are 3 to 5 eggs. The incubation period varies depending on the area of ​​distribution.

4. Keeping in captivity

The Ethiopian mountain astrild was first introduced to Europe in 1933 and was displayed at the London Zoo. However, the bird is rarely found commercially or is kept in captivity. Broods in captivity are rare.

Notes (edit)

  1. Boehme R.L., Flint V.E. A five-language dictionary of animal names. Birds. Latin, Russian, English, German, French. / under the general editorship of Acad. V.E.Sokolova. - M .: Rus. lang., "RUSSO", 1994. - P. 440. - 2030 copies. - ISBN 5-200-00643-0

Literature

  • Jürgen Nicolai (Hrsg.), Joachim Steinbacher (Hrsg.), Renate van den Elzen, Gerhard Hofmann, Claudia Mettke-Hofmann: Prachtfinken - Afrika, Serie Handbuch der Vogelpflege, Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Stuttg8 2007, ISBN 9700-300 4964-3
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This abstract is based on an article from the Russian Wikipedia. Synchronization completed 07/21/11 12:42:22 PM
Related abstracts: Cryptospiza.

Number of species in "sister" taxa

viewAstrild Mountain EthiopianCryptospiza salvadoriiReichenow
genusAstrild MountainCryptospizaSalvadori
familyFinch Weavers (Wax-billed Weavers)EstrildidaeBonaparte1850
superfamilyPasserinesPasseroidea
infraorderPasserinesPasserida
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fan-tailed Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
classBirdsAves
superclassFour-leggedTetrapodaBroili1913
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
suprasectionEumetazoiEumetazoa
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
kingdomAnimalsAnimalia
super-kingdomNuclearEukaryotaChatton1925
empireCellular

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of intraspecific territoriality. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

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